Additional information

Liberation
Information on the final phase of Buchenwald Concentration Camp can be found here.

Memoirs by members of the U.S. Army can be found here.

Literature
To order a publication on the Buchenwald death marches, click here.

Buchenwald Concentration Camp Book of the Dead
The online version can be found here.

Buchenwald concentration camp inmates at work cleaning up the Jakobsvorstadt, a suburb of Weimar, February 1945. Photo: Günther Beyer. Lichtbildner Constantin Beyer, Weimar

1945

January

In view of the advancing Red Army, the SS dissolve the labour and concentration camps still in operation in occupied Poland and force the inmates to set out on murderous evacuation marches. Those who arrive in Buchenwald alive are ravaged by exhaustion, hunger and cold and often deathly ill. Hundreds lie dead in the goods wagons, most of which are open at the top.

Mid-January

By order of the SS, block 61 (the Little Camp branch of the Buchenwald inmates' infirmary) becomes a place for the killing of enfeebled inmates with injections. By the end of March 1945, the SS murder several thousand inmates there.

February

Buchenwald is the largest of the concentration camps still in existence. At the end of February, there are 112,000 persons, including 25,000 women, in its parent camp and 88 subcamps. One third of the men and women in custody are Jews. Thousands are sent on to subcamps after arriving at the parent camp. The number of dying, ill and weak who remain behind in the Little Camp increases daily.

March/April

The SS keep the forced labour system in operation until the very end. The subcamps are cleared only when the front has advanced to their direct vicinity. The SS shoot those unable to walk and commit massacres in Leipzig-Thekla, Gardelegen and Ohrdruf.

5 April

In Webicht, the Weimar Gestapo shoot 149 inmates of the city's police and court prisons.

6 April

There are 47,500 inmates in the parent camp on the Ettersberg, of whom 22,900 are lodged in the barracks of the main camp and 18,000 in the stables of the Little Camp. Camp Commandant Pister orders the camp's clearance.

7 to 10 April

28,000 inmates from the parent camp are driven on foot or transported by rail in the direction of the Dachau and Flossenbürg concentration camps and the Terezín ghetto. Thousands perish on these transports and marches.

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